"So, what’s new? The researchers discovered that quantum dots made from graphene possess four quantum states at a given energy level, unlike semiconductor quantum dots, which have only two.
"“In conventional semiconductors, there is only the spin of the electrons,” explained Florian Libisch, the assistant professor at TU Wein who led the research, in an e-mail interview with IEEE Spectrum. “With graphene, there is a second conserved quantity called “pseudospin.” Both of these symmetries together yield 2 x 2 = 4 quantum states.”"
Quantum dots = this.